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Volume 6(2); April 2024
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Review Articles
The emergence and clinical significance of artificial intelligence–enhanced electrocardiography
Yong-Soo Baek
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(2):41-47.   Published online April 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e7
  • 1,163 View
  • 18 Download
Abstract PDF
The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) with electrocardiography (ECG), a technology known as AI-ECG, represents a transformative leap in the field of cardiovascular medicine. This innovative approach has significantly advanced the capabilities of ECG, traditionally used for diagnosing heart diseases. AI-ECG excels in detecting subtle changes and interconnected patterns in cardiac waveforms, offering a level of precision and sensitivity that was previously unattainable with conventional methods. The scope of AI-ECG extends beyond the realm of heart diseases. It has shown remarkable potential in predicting and identifying the impacts of noncardiac conditions on heart health, thereby broadening the diagnostic capabilities of ECG. This is especially valuable given the complex nature of cardiovascular diseases and their interactions with other health conditions. Despite its groundbreaking potential, AI-ECG faces several challenges. One of the primary concerns is the "black box" nature of AI algorithms, which can make the decision-making process opaque and difficult to interpret. This poses a challenge in medical settings where understanding the rationale behind a diagnosis is crucial. Additionally, the effectiveness of AI-ECG is dependent on the quality and diversity of the datasets used to train the algorithms. Limited or biased datasets can lead to inaccuracies and diminish the reliability of the technology. However, the benefits of AI-ECG are significant. It enables faster, more accurate diagnoses and has the potential to greatly enhance the efficiency of cardiovascular care. As research and technology continue to evolve, AI-ECG is poised to become an indispensable tool in the diagnosis and management of heart diseases.
Expectations and concerns regarding medical advertisements via large commercial medical platform advertising companies: a legal perspective
Raeun Kim, Hakyoung Park, Jiwon Shinn, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(2):48-56.   Published online April 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e8
  • 1,142 View
  • 12 Download
Abstract PDF
Advertising in the medical and legal fields, which are among Korea's leading professions, has increasingly utilized major advertising platforms such as LawTalk and UNNI—two of the most prominent and contentious platforms in their respective fields. While it is generally unproblematic for professionals like lawyers and doctors to promote public interest through advertising on these commercial platforms, the creation of a profit-driven structure has the potential to undermine their professional ecosystems. This article explores the issues associated with advertising in the medical field through large commercial platforms, drawing on notable examples from the legal and medical fields in Korea. Specifically, we analyze two of the most popular yet controversial platforms in these sectors, LawTalk and UNNI. In Korea, the format and method of advertising are legal as long as they do not involve referring or soliciting clients, thereby making platform advertising lawful when used solely for that purpose. Nevertheless, it is crucial to prevent medical advertising platforms from establishing market monopolies by skirting various profit regulations and laws. In response to these concerns, the Korean Bar Association has prohibited all advertisements by platform companies. The medical community should closely examine the rationale and process behind this decision. Given the significant social influence of large corporate platforms and the unique social responsibilities of the medical and legal professions, future platform advertising should be subject to distinct legal and institutional regulations that differ from those applied to general services.
Original Articles
Changes in cardiovascular-related health behaviors after the end of social distancing: the 2023 Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Awareness Survey
Jaeyong Lee, Eunji Kim, Won-Young Lee, Eun-Jung Rhee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(2):57-64.   Published online April 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e6
  • 1,066 View
  • 6 Download
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of social distancing have been reported to negatively impact cardiovascular-related health behaviors. However, the effects of lifting social distancing restrictions on these health behaviors remain unclear. This study investigated public awareness and behavioral changes related to cardiovascular disease prevention after the end of social distancing.
Methods
Between June 5 and June 12, 2023, 2,000 adults participated in the 2023 Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Awareness Survey in Korea. The survey comprehensively addressed sociodemographic factors, cardiometabolic disease history, cardiovascular disease concern, prevention awareness, and behavioral changes after the end of social distancing. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between behavioral changes and sociodemographic factors.
Results
Cardiovascular disease ranked as the second most feared disease (most feared, 18.0%; second most feared, 26.3%) after cancer (most feared, 42.3%; second most feared, 21.7%). Among nine cardiovascular disease prevention recommendations, stress management, being physically active, and maintaining a healthy diet were perceived as the most challenging recommendations. After the end of social distancing, there were more positive changes than negative changes in smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, and healthcare service use, whereas stress management more frequently changed negatively (40.0%) than it changed positively (19.5%).
Conclusions
Positive changes in cardiovascular-related health behaviors, except for stress management, were observed after the end of social distancing. Further research is necessary to fully comprehend the impact of discontinuing social distancing practices.
Cardiovascular risk assessment of newborns in Nigeria using the atherogenic index of plasma and its associations with gestational age and birth weight: a cross-sectional hospital-based study
Obinna Victory Obaji, Uche Charles Adizua, Ndubuisi Kennedy Chukwudi, Daberechi Kenneth Adiele, Justus Uchenna Onu
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(2):65-73.   Published online April 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e9
  • 1,187 View
  • 26 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is rising, and its onset from childhood is widely studied. Prematurity and low birth weight were associated with higher atherogenic risk when assessed using some lipid ratios. However, the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), a sensitive marker for atherosclerosis is understudied in newborns. Utilizing AIP, this study aimed to determine atherogenic risk prevalence among newborns and its association with gestational age and birth weight.
Methods
Newborns were consecutively recruited, and their lipid profiles were determined. The AIP was calculated as the logarithm to base 10 (log10) of the ratio of molar concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The atherogenic risk was operationalized using AIP: high, >0.24; medium, 0.1–0.24; and low/no risk, <0.1. The relationship between AIP values, gestational age, and birth weight was analyzed using Pearson correlation.
Results
The mean AIP of the 167 newborns studied was –0.35±0.34, which is within the global reference range. Three (1.8%), 10 (6.0%), and 154 (92.2%) newborns were in the high, medium, and low/no atherogenic risk categories, respectively. Hence, 13 newborns (7.8%) had medium to high atherogenic risk. AIP had a moderate significantly positive relationship only with gestational age (r=0.35, P<0.001).
Conclusions
The study found an atherogenic risk prevalence of 7.8% using AIP in newborns which, contrary to previous studies that used other ratios, has no significant association with birth weight, correlating positively with gestational age, though is lowest in late preterms. Follow-up studies will elucidate these findings.
Cardiac rehabilitation using intensive lifestyle habituation combined with outdoor exercise in an urban forest environment for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease: a feasibility test
Jong-Young Lee, Kee-Chan Joo, Kyung-Su Choi, Dae-Sik Yoon
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(2):74-83.   Published online April 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e10
  • 974 View
  • 7 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
We aimed to examine the feasibility of intensive lifestyle habituation with a subsequent home program, including forest-based exercise, as an alternative approach to conventional cardiac rehabilitation for both primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods
A total of 28 participants were included in a 1-week intensive education program aimed at fostering desirable lifestyle habits in the study: 17 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and 11 participants at high risk of CAD. Subsequently, they engaged in a self-directed, home-based program that included unstructured exercise in an urban forest. The terrain of the urban forest was analyzed to estimate metabolic equivalent levels and to assess safety and accessibility for patient exercise.
Results
Throughout the program, no adverse cardiac events were reported. Additionally, risk factors for CAD—including body composition, blood sugar levels, hemodynamic variables, total cholesterol levels, and cardiorespiratory endurance—showed significant improvement in both groups.
Conclusions
Intensive lifestyle habituation and unstructured, self-directed exercise in the forest were as effective and safe as conventional cardiac rehabilitation for patients with CAD. The study demonstrated that an urban forest could serve as a safe exercise environment in both primary and secondary prevention strategies for CAD.

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy